Behind the conspiracies are the ideas that everything that happens in society is the result of meticulous planning by some powerful secret and evil people.
The usual protagonists of the conspiracy theories are the Jews, the Masons, the financial elites, the UN, the extraterrestrial invaders, and have been explained as an effect of a universal conspiracy, events and phenomena such as the assassination of Kennedy, AIDS, globalization or September 11.
Such conspiracies do not exist, and perhaps they would not deserve serious attention if they were not so dangerous.
They may seem bizarre and delirious, but judging by their popularity, you do not need to be disturbed to believe in them.
They have been a source of inspiration for successful fictions, such as the television series,the Matrix film trilogy or the novel The Da Vinci Code, but sometimes even respected academics and political scientists use them to interpret the real world.
What is a conspiracy?
Patán notes: “the coups d’état are conspiracies, like Pinochet’s in Chile; military uprisings, such as Franco’s in Spain; the Mexican, Bolshevik or French revolutions; the nineteenth-century Latin American independence movements, and even electoral fraud.
In the literature specialising in these matters, when an author talks about conspiracy, he usually refers to some secret plan conceived not to take the power but to conserve it, consolidate it or, more often, extend it.
Examples of this form of conspiracies would be the assassinations of opponents or even the so-called disinformation campaigns, that is, the media campaigns aimed at manipulating public opinion through false news.
In these cases, the conspiracy is concocted from the power, not necessarily against it, and this may or may not be the political power.
And what are its main characteristics?
The conspiracies share three equally obvious characteristics, but that must be emphasised.
The first is that they are fallible.
All conspiracy is a history of assumed risks, of jumps to the emptiness, and also of erroneous calculations, clumsiness, failures in the coordination, betrayals, accidents. Few things are more difficult to calculate with good sense where a plot will end up.
A betrayal, a seemingly innocuous error, a bit of bad luck, and what looked like an exemplary plot conspired to end with a resounding disaster, as the strengthening of the regime that was intended to overthrow or multi million-dollar spending in a media campaign that is useless .
The second characteristic common to all conspiracies is their necessarily limited scope.
No matter how ambitious your ultimate plans are, the triumphant conspirators must know how to conform. The third characteristic of conspiracies is that they are perishable. A plot can be planned for a few hours, a few days or a few weeks, if at all in a few months.
After that time, it is certain that something will change in the world: either the balance of forces within the government, or the popular sympathies, or the decision to move on from a conjurer or the attitude of neighbouring countries, including the government itself. .
These are the real conspiracies that Patán does not deal with: fallible conspiracies limited in time and space.
What characteristics do false conspiracies have?
The first is that, because of the capacity for planning and execution attributed to their perpetrators and the inexhaustible means available to them, the conspiracies they describe seem free of failure. They refer, in a word, to perfect conspiracies. Second, they deal with conspiracies of universal scope, unlimited, that leave signs in literally the whole world, and that have as goal to completely alter the established order, overthrow all known institutions and put the entire planet in the hands of the plotters.
We speak, then, of conspiracies born of a vocation of absolute, directed towards total supremacy. Finally, they generally deal with very old conspiracies, conceived decades, centuries, and even millennia ago.
Patán points out other characteristics of false conspiracies: their religious character (they explain everything that happens in the world), their millenarian charge (invites to engage in a holy war, an all-or-nothing war) and the infinite capacity of the conspirators to infiltrate (they are everywhere, they have eyes and ears in all places, friends, family or co-workers can be informants).
And what about the conspiracy and its way of thinking and behaving?
Patán affirms that the conspiracy is very far from modesty, is suspicious -something necessary to carry out the task that has been imposed: bring the plot to light and immune to doubt, “because he knows that the ultimate truth is that everything is a lie, worth the paradox.
In this way, he undertakes his search with the firmness of the enlightened and the tenacity of the ignorant.
The conspiracy theorist advances, immune to fatigue, as only those who believe themselves chosen to cross the veil of lies with their eyes and see the truth, the truth, again, in a universal sense.
Thus, a theory of conspiracy is a tool of interpretation of the world that excludes all others, a tool, yes, of a paranoid nature.
Why, as the paranoid who relates even the most remote and foreign acts with his own persecutors plot, the conspiracy theorist sees in all the facts that are put at his disposal, from the big macroeconomic decisions to the death of a singer or a road accident, elements of a planetary plot in which nothing remains and nothing is accidental.
The world is a masquerade, but the hidden truth emits signals and leaves clues that the conspiracy will have to know how to interpret it.
In the same way, the conspiracy never finishes its work: “to all revealed truth will follow an even greater one that expects to be stripped, and then another more, and another, and another … There is no end, there is no rest. The world is a succession of increasingly vast and complex intrigues, an endless game of concentric circles that one could penetrate to infinity and in which nothing is ever completely disconnected. What has been said: for the conspiracy theorist there are no isolated facts; there are, nothing more, links that are not apparent but that can come to light. “
Throughout his work Patán analyses various false plots (such as the world Jewish conspiracy and that of the Freemasons), among them the one that involves the extraterrestrials: “the world is infiltrated by aliens who try to conquer it with the help of several members of high rank of the government, the army and the secret services. ”